The pomegranate, or Punica, that is, the Punic tree, is a deciduous plant that lives up to 60 years, with orange-red flowers and small glossy leaves. In stores, he is a rare guest, so the reproduction of home pomegranates is important for flower growers.
How pomegranate reproduces
Homemade pomegranate, due to its small size, has gained popularity among indoor plant lovers. It grows in height no more than a meter, it is a hybrid, isolated as an individual species Punica nana. It is well formed, therefore it is often grown as a bonsai.
There are two ways to propagate a pomegranate tree:
- by cuttings.
When seed propagation of home pomegranate, varietal characteristics are preserved. For 100% of the result of obtaining a particular plant variety, a cutting of the desired variety of homemade pomegranate is grafted onto the shoot grown from the seed.
Breeding features of indoor pomegranate
Most varieties of pomegranate are propagated vegetatively. The home pomegranate tree is a hybrid, therefore, its seed germination is low.
Another advantage of propagation of indoor pomegranate by cuttings is that flowers and fruits appear earlier on such a plant.
A tree grown from seed blooms later than one obtained from cuttings.
Attention! When home pomegranate is propagated by seeds, as a rule, splitting of signs occurs. This means that the seeds ripened in one fruit are heterogeneous.
How to propagate pomegranate by cuttings at home
This is not difficult. All recommendations and rules must be followed.
Terms of cuttings
It is necessary to propagate home pomegranates by cuttings in the spring, when all nature, under the influence of the sun, begins to wake up. For central Russia, this is the end of February - the beginning of March.
A tree that has rested over the winter is cut off, leaving 3-5 pairs of leaf plates on the shoots of the current year. The cut branches remaining after the formation of the crown are used for breeding.
To obtain high-quality planting material, in order to propagate home pomegranates, branches are chosen that meet the following requirements:
- Cuttings are taken from mature fruiting plants.
- Of the branches remaining after cutting the home pomegranate, those that have already begun to be covered with bark, but it is still very thin, are left.
- The stalk must have at least 4-5 internodes.
- Planting material should be free of signs of diseases and pests.
When trying to root green shoots of home pomegranate, there is a very large percentage of rotting, and if you take older branches, the root system will grow more slowly.
Before rooting cuttings of homemade pomegranate, preparation is carried out. For this:
- remove the four bottom sheets;
- the stem is cut at an angle, retreating 2-3 mm from the internode;
- 2-3 pairs of leaves are left on top, the rest is removed;
- be sure to pinch the growth point, if any;
- the bottom is treated with Kornevin or Heteroauxin;
Propagation of decorative pomegranates by cuttings should be done by planting them in the ground, or by placing them in water.
For this, a transparent glass vessel is taken. The plastic is very light, and if handled carelessly, it can turn over, causing damage to the young roots. Water is poured just enough to cover the second internode. The vessel is placed in a bright, warm place shaded from direct sunlight.
Important! It is necessary to monitor the transparency of the solution. If it begins to grow cloudy, then the stalk of a homemade pomegranate is taken out and washed in a slightly pinkish solution of manganese.
The container is also washed, poured with fresh, settled warm water, and the sprigs of homemade pomegranate are placed back.
When the roots appear after 2-3 weeks, the cutting is planted in the ground. This method of reproduction of pomegranates at home has one significant drawback: the roots that have grown in water, when planted in the soil, partially die, and the plant spends time adapting and growing new roots.
In the ground
The substrate for rooting cuttings of home pomegranate can be anything, but rather loose and breathable. This could be:
- purchased soil for universal use;
- prepared independently from peat and river sand, with the addition of sod land or leaf humus;
- perlite or vermiculite.
To plant cuttings of homemade pomegranate, you need to prepare plastic 100 gram cups, best transparent so that you can see the formation of roots. Glass jars or 1-1.5 liter plastic bottles cut into 2 parts.
Planting takes place according to the scheme:
- pour the substrate into a glass;
- at a slight angle, stick the petiole into the ground so that both internodes are in the ground;
- press the soil around the cutting;
- moisturize the substrate well;
- cover a glass with a decorative pomegranate handle with a glass jar or place it inside a cut plastic bottle;
- place in a bright, warm place, but not in direct sunlight.
Until the root system begins to grow, the cuttings of home pomegranate are kept under a "hood", airing once a day, and making sure that the soil is slightly moist. Roots appear in 2-4 weeks.
Since the Punic tree is a tropical plant, for the successful cultivation of pomegranate cuttings at home, it is required to create a microclimate as close as possible to the natural habitat:
- Bright diffused sunlight. On the south windows, the plant should be shaded at lunchtime. Pomegranates are gradually taught to the sun.
- High air humidity. If the apartment is too dry, then the home pomegranate is sprayed, or the humidity is artificially raised.
- Air temperature in the range of + 20-25 ° С. At higher values, home pomegranate begins to lose leaves, growth and development slow down. You can lower the temperature by spraying it with cold water or placing a plastic ice bottle next to it. It is recommended to keep the plant outdoors in summer.
- Timely and adequate watering. The soil should be moistened when the top layer of the earth dries up.
- Top dressing. Fertilizing home pomegranate should be 2 times a month. In the spring, top dressing with a high nitrogen content is used, and from July - with a preponderance of phosphorus and potassium.
In winter, a dormant period begins for a home pomegranate. A plant that has not reached the age of 3 years is kept at a temperature of + 12-16 ° C, watered less often and not fed.
Attention! The crown of a home pomegranate begins to form from "infancy". After 3-5 pairs of leaf plates have grown, the growth points are pinched to induce branching.
The first transplant of a homemade pomegranate is done when the roots entangle the entire earthen lump in the glass. They are transplanted into a pot, the diameter of which is 2-3 cm larger than the previous one, in early spring.
The root system of a home pomegranate is superficial, so it is not recommended to take a deep container, since the ground will begin to sour below.
Important! If you take a larger pot, then the plant will slow down its growth until the root system has mastered the entire capacity.
Homemade pomegranate is moved to a new pot using the transshipment method:
- drainage must be poured to the bottom;
- sprinkle a little with soil on top;
- place an earthen lump with a handle in the center of the pot;
- the substrate is poured on the sides and compacted.
Until the home pomegranate is 3 years old, it is transplanted annually.
How to propagate pomegranate seeds at home
In addition to grafting, pomegranate at home can be propagated by seeds. To do this, use the bones of a fresh, fully ripe fruit. They do not lose their properties up to 6 months. Seeds of varietal varieties of home pomegranate are sold in garden stores.
For reproduction, choose the largest fruit and do not pluck it from the tree until the skin hardens. The largest grains are used. If planting is postponed for some time, then the pulp from the seeds is removed and dried.
The substrate for germinating pomegranate seeds is prepared from equal parts of peat and river sand. Landing is carried out according to the scheme:
- a layer of soil 6-8 cm is poured into the container and is well moistened;
- seeds are laid out on the surface at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other;
- covered with soil to a height of 0.5 cm, compacted and moistened;
- the container is covered with glass or cling film, and placed in a warm place;
- seed germination occurs at a temperature of + 25-27 ° C.
After the appearance of green shoots, the glass or film is removed, and the container is placed in a bright, warm place, but not in direct sunlight. Seedlings dive after 4 true leaves appear on them. For this, 100 ml plastic transparent cups are suitable.
Care, pruning and transplanting, in the future, are the same as for young pomegranates obtained as a result of cuttings.
Tips & Tricks
Before starting a home pomegranate in an apartment, you need to be sure that there are all conditions for growth. Pomegranate comes from southern latitudes, where there is a lot of sunlight, so it will not feel very comfortable on the eastern and western windowsills. North windows are contraindicated for him. Southeast, south, or southwest window sills are required for its successful cultivation.
The pomegranate tree grows well on neutral soils, so it is not necessary to allow the substrate to acidify. For this reason, oak soil cannot be used.
The clod of earth should not dry out, otherwise the pomegranate will shed its leaves, and the root system will die. But you should not plant a swamp in a pot either - the roots will begin to rot. Especially carefully you need to monitor the watering regime during the dormant period.
Before planting, dry grains are soaked for several hours in water with growth stimulants.
Reproduction of home pomegranate and cultivation will bring not only aesthetic pleasure, but also useful fruits. You just need to adhere to the rules of caring for the plant. Make sure that the tree does not hurt, is not attacked by pests. Carry out prophylactic treatment with appropriate drugs.