Sedum, also known as sedum (lat. Sedum), belongs to the order of succulent plants of the Tolstyankov family. The genus has more than 500 species. All of its representatives are distinguished by fleshy stems and leaves. Sedum is conventionally subdivided into 2 groups: the first includes thermophilic perennial crops grown in indoor conditions, and the second includes frost-resistant ground cover plants. Planting and caring for sedum in the open field, regardless of the variety, requires knowledge of the composition of the soil, light regime, watering and feeding. They are the key to long-lasting flowering.
Conditions for growing sedums
When growing sedum in the southern regions, succulent pleases with an early and long flowering period from May to June. In central Russia, its term is shifted and significantly reduced. Some sedum species bloom by late summer and early autumn. For breeding in the northern regions, frost-resistant varieties of sedum are suitable: Brilliant and Carmen.
Sedum prominent "Brilliant" should be planted in an area with an abundance of sunlight
Sedums give preference to sandy soils of a neutral reaction, with good water-penetrating ability. Temperature plays an important role in the development of stonecrops during the winter months, when the plants are dormant. Sedum bushes easily tolerate drops in the range of -14-16 ° C. With frosts above -30-42 ° C, their superficial root system may die.
Rare sedum varieties, such as Burrito, Sieboldii, are more convenient to grow as indoor plants. In summer, they can be taken out into the street, planted in pots or in a flower bed, which will benefit the stonecrops. For the winter, pots with succulents are brought into the house.
Sedum ampelous "Siebold" in the summer months should be taken out into the street
Hybrid sedum varieties are characterized by low growth (up to 10-15 cm) and long creeping shoots. Many of their species are referred to as lodging succulents. Such sedums are often used for landscaping roofs and walls.
How to grow sedum from seeds
When buying seeds in specialized stores, you should pay attention to the expiration date. It shouldn't be expired. In late February - early March, sedum seeds are sown in shallow seedling boxes with good soil mixture. For several days (10-14), the containers are placed in the refrigerator.
After a certain time, the boxes with seeds are taken out, lightly sprinkled with sand, watered abundantly, covered with glass, put in a bright place. If necessary, use fluorescent lamps. As it dries, the soil is sprayed with a spray bottle. In places where there are boxes, keep the average temperature above + 18 ° C.
Seedlings appear not earlier than in 2-3 weeks. Until they fully germinate, it will take at least another month.
Sedum seedlings give good growth only 2 weeks after picking
Stonecrop picking is carried out when 2-3 true leaves appear. They are seated in shallow dishes using a special soil composition with the addition of coarse sand.
The cultivation of indoor sedums from seeds is no different. With a skillful combination of 2-5 undersized varieties in one pot, they create interesting compositions. Some stonecrops resemble stars in shape, others - lilies, together they form a kind of exotic corner. For this, sedum seeds are stratified, then sown, after which a pick is carried out. Fortified seedlings of 2-5 types of stonecrop are planted in one pot.
Several varieties of low-growing sedum are planted in one pot
Sedum is often grown by sowing seeds for seedlings in open ground. They do this with the onset of warmth, from May to June. The substrate is prepared from a mixture of earth, compost and sand in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. They monitor the required level of soil moisture, promptly remove weeds around the stonecrops.
Sedum of rare variegated varieties is grown similarly. At the same time, they control that the plant does not give shoots that differ in color. They are immediately removed, otherwise the whole bush will turn green.
Important! Sedum grown from seed blooms at 3-4 years of age. When using seed collected from sedum at the time of ripening, the plant rarely inherits varietal characteristics.
The most effective method for propagating sedum is by cutting and dividing the bush. Adult succulents reproduce well by self-seeding.
Planting and caring for stonecrops in the open field
When growing sedums, you should pay attention to the composition of the soil, the level of its moisture and the abundance of sunlight. Perennial garden stonecrops require care and adherence to planting rules, autumn pruning, which must be adhered to.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
A place for sedums is chosen open, well-lit, away from tall shrubs and deciduous trees. Avoid lowlands and areas with high groundwater contact.
Attention! With a lack of sunlight, the stems of sedums stretch out, the leaves turn pale, fall off. The sedum plant loses its external attractiveness, does not bloom, as a result, does not give self-seeding.
Sedum planting rules
Stonecrops are planted in open ground in spring (at the beginning of May), as soon as return frosts have passed. If the soil on the site is loamy, rich in calcareous deposits, sand and humus are introduced before excavation (1 bucket per 1 m²) so that it becomes sufficiently loose.
For each seedling, holes are prepared with a depth of 20-25 cm and a diameter of up to 50 cm, between them maintain a distance of 15-20 cm.For sprawling tall varieties of sedum, the interval is increased to 40-50 cm.
The bottom of the holes is lined with a drainage layer 2-3 cm thick, consisting of pebbles (expanded clay), fine gravel and broken bricks. Top covered with a mixture of sand and compost in a ratio of 3: 1.
Before planting stonecrops, each seedling (especially purchased) is inspected for the presence of fungal diseases, pest damage. They put it in a depression, correct the root. Sprinkle with soil from all sides, compact and water the soil. A hole with a stonecrop seedling is lined with pebbles, a shallow ditch is formed to drain excess water. In one place, a succulent can grow up to 5 years, after which division of the bush and transplantation are required.
Watering and feeding
Young, freshly planted stonecrops are more demanding for moisture. Watering is carried out as the soil dries out. Adult sedum bushes are drought-resistant, do not need abundant and frequent moisture, it leads to the formation of fungi with subsequent decay of the roots. Exceptions are hot days and dry summers. The earth is periodically loosened, weeds are removed - sedum bushes cannot stand their neighborhood.
Mature sedum bushes of the prominent "Hot Staff" do not require abundant and frequent watering
If organic fertilizers are applied to the soil when planting young succulents, sedums are not overloaded with additional feeding for 1.5-2 years. It leads to overgrowth of bushes. It is necessary to fertilize adult stonecrops twice a season: the first time - in the spring, before flowering, the second - after it, closer to the end of summer. Late-flowering sedum varieties are fed in mid-autumn, before the arrival of frost.
Compositions designed specifically for succulents, including minerals and organics, are used as fertilizers for stonecrops. The feeding procedure allows you to extend the flowering period of sedums and it is easier to transfer wintering.
Advice! Do not overuse nitrogen-containing fertilizers, they reduce the plant's ability to resist diseases.
Removing wilted petals and dried leaves from stonecrops is necessary primarily for sanitary purposes and to extend the flowering period. When pruning, too long lashes are also cut off, thereby giving the stonecrop bushes spectacular shapes and compactness.
Faded petals and long shoots are promptly removed from stonecrop
Sedums grown from seeds at home do not require pruning at all in the first two years. Experts recommend cutting off only damaged and too long lashes.
To renew and rejuvenate old sedum bushes, all shoots are removed from them in late autumn. The cut sites are treated with antifungal agents. Fresh earth is added under the outlet of succulents.
The root system of stonecrops tends to grow rapidly, filling the entire space under the flower bed. Florists deliberately delimit sedum bushes with fragments of slate or tiles.
Preparing for winter
Most sedums are hardy succulents. Some varietal specimens, like young bushes, with a cold snap are recommended to be covered with spruce branches or straw. This is especially true for stonecrops that have undergone major pruning. With warming, the covering material is removed, allowing the soil to dry well.
Pests and diseases
Like any other garden plant, sedums are susceptible to pests and diseases. The most dangerous of them is a nematode that attacks the roots of stonecrops. The disease is manifested by a sharp change in appearance: wilting of the leaves, then the bushes themselves. To date, there are no effective methods of combating the disease. Stonecrop bushes affected by a nematode are removed together with an earthen clod, burned to avoid the spread of the disease to neighboring plants.
A common cause of sedum root decay is excessive watering or a rainy summer, when moisture stagnates in the soil.
For the same reason, a dark spot appears on the leaves of stonecrops. If the affected area is small, a fungicide solution will cope with the problem. It is enough to dilute the composition in the proportions indicated in the instructions, and treat the sedum bushes with it. Other possible pests of stonecrops:
- Thrips. Insects feed on plant sap. From their bites, the leaves and stems are depleted, deformed and dry.
- Aphid. Like thrips, it affects stonecrops, feeding on their juice.
- Weevil. Pierces the film, reaching the pulp. Leaves numerous black dots on the surface of the leaves, due to which they wilt, then fall off.
- Sawfly caterpillar.
Plant pests are fought with insecticides. They select sparing preparations that do not leave burns on the stems and leaves, for example, "Actellik".
Sedum "Burrito" is used in landscape design
Planting and caring for sedum outdoors is straightforward. In addition, any of its varieties are wonderful assistants to landscape designers. Some representatives of this species have bright colors, others - chic curly lashes. Creating a solid colored carpet, stonecrops beautifully frame flower beds, paths, fences and curbs.