European cedar pine is a unique coniferous tree that has become popular for its beauty, cold resistance and medicinal properties. In household plots, European cedar, despite its large size, is widely used in landscape design. The powerful, beautiful plant fascinates with a slender trunk, dense greenish-blue needles and dark brown cones, which ripen 24 months after pollination.
Description of the European cedar
The homeland of the European cedar pine is the mountain forests of Central Europe. In natural conditions, it can be found in the South of France, in the Eastern regions of the Alps and Carpathians.
On moderately moist soil, the plant reaches 25 m in height and 8 m in width. The massive egg-shaped crown is formed by long, thin needles, emerald-sky color. The needles are collected in a bunch and stay on the shoots for several years. Flowering occurs in summer.
At the beginning of September, purple-green edible cones up to 25 cm long appear on the cedar pine. The cones ripen the next year after pollination, forming seeds up to 12 mm in size. Ripe buds turn dark brown.
The fruits of the European cedar pine are valued as a delicacy, medicine and as a valuable nutritious product. Since ancient times, the European cedar pine has been considered a breadfruit, since it can feed not only people, but also forest dwellers. If the European cedar pine grows on a personal plot, fruiting occurs in 15 years, the harvest is obtained every 2 years.
Due to its strong, taproot system, cedar pine does not need regular watering, it tolerates drought well. European cedar pine is not whimsical to care, soil composition and air humidity. Ephedra is cold-resistant, so it can be grown in all regions of Russia. Cedar pine is a long-liver; it grows in one place for about 400 years and more.
Thanks to the painstaking work of breeders, about 100 decorative varieties of European cedar pine have been created. Most popular:
- Columnaris - pine forms a columnar crown.
- Viridis - a tree covered with bright emerald needles.
- Aurea - attractive for the golden shade of the needles.
- Verigata - the variety has become popular for the attractive color of the needles. The tips of the needles are covered with a golden color, the rest with stripes or spots. Thanks to this, the crown has an original variegated color.
- Compact Glauka is a dwarf, slow-growing variety. The height of the tree does not exceed 80 cm. Greenish-blue needles on the outside and snow-white sky on the inside cover short, vertical shoots.
- Pygmea - a variety used to decorate an alpine slide. Plant height 40-60 cm, needles are tender, curved, of different lengths.
The European cedar pine has found wide application in the woodworking industry and medicine. The wood is strong and durable, therefore it is used for the manufacture of souvenirs, furniture, interior cladding of the house and dishes. It is believed that if you keep milk in a container made of cedar, it will not sour for a long time and acquire a pleasant taste.
In folk medicine, needles, cones, bark, resin and nuts are used:
- cedar oil is made from the seeds, which helps against varicose veins;
- the shell treats mastopathy, osteochondrosis, arthritis and sciatica;
- a broth based on needles has a diaphoretic effect,
- shell infusion relieves stress, diseases of the stomach, liver and kidneys;
- the resin, due to its bactericidal properties, is used for cuts, wounds and burns.
To grow a European cedar on a personal plot and consider the beauty of an evergreen handsome man, you need to view the photo and read the description in detail.
European cedar in landscape design
European cedar pine is widely used for decoration of garden and park economy and personal plot. It looks attractive both in single and in group plantings, next to ornamental trees and shrubs.
European cedar pine releases oxygen and phytoncides. Thanks to these properties, the air is disinfected and filled with a pleasant coniferous aroma, which has a beneficial effect on the human body.
To create a relaxing effect, European cedar pine is planted next to a recreation area, near water bodies and surrounded by other conifers.
Planting and caring for European cedar
European cedar pine is undemanding to care, soil composition and air humidity. To grow a beautiful, healthy plant,
It is necessary to prepare the site, choose the right seedling and carry out timely care.
Seedling and planting plot preparation
It is better to buy a cedar pine seedling in a nursery with a closed root system. This will enable the plant to quickly adapt to a new place and build up a powerful root system. Also, a seedling purchased in a pot can be planted in spring, summer and autumn.
Important! For better survival, it is better to acquire a European cedar pine sapling no older than 3 years of age.
To make the needles look beautiful and be painted in a rich color, they choose an open, well-lit place for planting. The European cedar pine is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but it grows and develops better on fertile soil. When planting, a soil mixture is made from sand, clay and sod land in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. If there is heavy loam on the site, before planting, drainage is made from sand or broken brick with a layer of 20 cm.
How to plant European cedar
When planting European cedar pine, the distance between the planting holes is kept 4-6 m. The root system should be placed in the hole freely and without bending. Planting technology of European cedar pine:
- The hole is dug 1 m deep and 1.8 m wide.
- The pit is filled with 1 bucket of fertile soil and 10 liters of compost. Mix everything thoroughly.
- The seedling is carefully removed from the container, the twisted roots are straightened, trying not to destroy the earthen lump.
- The plant is placed in a bucket of warm water so that the roots do not dry out during planting.
- A small mound is formed in the planting pit and a seedling with a straightened root system is installed.
- When planting, it is necessary to ensure that the root collar is located at soil level.
- The roots are covered with soil, tamping each layer.
- The planted seedling is spilled abundantly. About 5 buckets of warm water are consumed per plant.
- After the water is absorbed, the soil is mulched.
Important! If a cedar pine seedling has an asymmetrically developed crown, then the less developed side is located to the south.
Watering and feeding
European cedar pine is a drought-resistant conifer. It grows and develops well both in arid areas and in moist soil. The tree needs abundant watering only in early spring, when the buds are waking up. Each young plant needs at least 50 liters of water. Also, cedar pine in the hot summer will not refuse irrigation by sprinkling. This procedure will increase the humidity, give the needles a healthy and well-groomed look, and fill the air with a coniferous aroma.
The evergreen handsome man does not tolerate nitrogenous fertilizers, and the root system does not develop from them. Therefore, nitrogen is excluded as a top dressing. But so that the European cedar pine does not freeze and develop well, it can be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Mulching and loosening
Small suction roots are naturally located under the forest floor. Therefore, after planting cedar European pine in the personal plot, the trunk circle is mulched. Mulch is essential to maintain high fertility and aeration of the top layer. The best mulch for European cedar pine will be foliage, needles, bark. When mulch decomposes, the soil acquires a fertile composition, which is necessary for the life of earthworms and microorganisms. The mycelium of fungi can improve the structure of the soil and protect the root system from pathogens of fungal diseases.
Mulch also retains moisture and helps the root system to cope with cold winters. To stimulate the formation of adventitious roots, a new layer of mulch is added annually.
Important! The soil around the cedar pine should not be dug up, as there is a danger of chopping off the adventitious roots. Only slight loosening of the topsoil is allowed.
European cedar pine does not need pruning, the exceptions are:
- sanitary pruning - remove damaged, not overwintered and diseased shoots;
- to increase the density of the crown, young, annual shoots are cut by ½ the length;
- to slow down the growth of the tree and branches, the annual growths are carefully broken out.
Preparing for winter
European cedar pine is a frost-resistant species, an adult tree easily tolerates severe cold without shelter. But young shoots can suffer from frost, so they need shelter. For protection, spruce branches or a breathable non-woven material are used, which is used to cover the tree after the onset of the first frost.
Advice! To prevent the needles of cedar pine from getting burned by the spring sun, the shelter is removed only after the end of the spring frost.
European cedar pine is propagated by seeds, since the survival rate of cuttings is very low.
To produce a healthy seedling, seeds must be stratified. To do this, they are placed in a container filled with wet sand. The container is removed for 2-3 months in a cool room, where the temperature does not rise above + 5 ° C. The prepared seed is sown in the greenhouse, since when planting in open ground, the germination rate is reduced by 50%.
Advice! Greenhouse cultivation has several advantages: protection from frost, rodents and diseases.
Seed propagation of cedar pine is a laborious and long process, therefore, it is recommended for novice gardeners to buy seedlings grown in a nursery.
Diseases and pests
The European cedar pine has a strong immunity to many diseases. But if the rules of care are not followed, the tree can become infected with diseases.
Anamorphic mushrooms. When a fungus is damaged, the roots turn brown, and the mycelium penetrate into the vessels of the tree, clogs them, and impedes the supply of nutrients. Without treatment, cedar pine needles turn red and crumble, the tree begins to dry out and die.
It is almost impossible to get rid of the fungus, therefore, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures in a timely manner:
- purchase a healthy seedling from trusted suppliers;
- in the spring, before sap flow, spray the young plant with a copper-containing preparation;
- carry out mulching of the trunk circle;
- fallen, affected needles should be removed and burned in a timely manner.
Cones rust. When the fungus is affected, the tips of the shoots die off, the trunk is curved, the cones open and fall off. The fungus is dangerous for young plants, it quickly spreads throughout the plant and in a short time leads to the death of an immature plant. For prevention, young cedar pine is sprayed in spring and autumn with broad-spectrum fungicides.
European cedar pine is not only an additional detail in landscape design, but also a healing tree that helps with many diseases. When 2-3 specimens are planted, the air will be filled with an unforgettable coniferous aroma, which is fully revealed after the rain. When you are near a tree, you can get a boost of energy, get rid of stress and nervous feelings. Subject to timely care, the European pine will reward with a harvest of cones with tasty and healthy seeds.