Today, people who breed pets are thinking about which breed of cattle to choose for their backyard. It all depends on which direction will be chosen: dairy or meat. But the Swiss breed of cows is equally good for the production of meat and milk at the same time.
The features of the care and raising of animals, the rules of feeding will be discussed in the article. In addition, we will name the pros and cons of the Swiss cow breed. So you will have the opportunity to think and make the right choice of cattle for your personal subsidiary farm or for a farm.
A bit of history
This breed of cows was bred several centuries ago in Switzerland, in the canton of Schwyz. To improve local animals with short legs, gobies of eastern breeds were used. Already at that time, breeders were thinking about breeding dairy and beef cows. In addition, the animals had to have strength and endurance so that the bulls could be used for peasant work.
Today, the Shvitskaya brown cattle breed is early maturing, highly productive and strong animals that provide both meat and milk.
Nowadays, Swiss cows are common all over the world. Breeders continue to work on improving the breed today. Moreover, in each country, animals have their own differences.
Attention! Italian Swiss are more of a meat breed.
In Russia, the prevailing brown Shvitskaya breed, obtained in the 19th century. Moreover, Russian breeders have created three varieties:
- milk and meat;
- meat and dairy.
Breeding farms take good care of the Schwyts bulls, since the future of Russian agriculture will depend on their health.
Despite the fact that Schwyz may have differences, you need to be aware of common signs:
- Swiss cows are brown in color, but the shade can be different. They are distinguished by elastic and thin skin. The breed can be identified by a dark lead mirror around the nose and blond hair.
- The hair on the back is also lighter than on the sides and belly. Swiss bulls have a darker head and front torso than heifers. See how stately the animal looks in the photo.
- The forms in animals are proportional, but here you can find the difference. In animals of the meat direction, the muscles are highly developed, they are wide in the body, but the udder is poorly developed. Dairy Swiss cows, on the other hand, are angular with an elongated body.
Dairy-meat breed, description
Russians give preference to cows of the Schwyz breed of dairy and meat direction.
We pay special attention to the description and characteristic features of animals:
- large, up to 1 meter 34 cm in height;
- on a strong short neck there is a small head, with a wide forehead;
- horns with dark tips;
- the chest reaches 187 cm in girth, about 44 cm in width, and about 70 cm in depth;
- no dewlap;
- the udder is bowl-shaped, less than that of a purely dairy breed of cows;
- legs with black hooves are well set, they are distinguished by strength.
Now let's dwell on the Swiss breed of cows - the characteristic of weight:
- Newborn calves are quite large, weighing 32-41 kg. At the age of one, both heifers and bulls gain about 300 kg. As early as a year and a half, calves weigh 350-370 kg under optimal conditions. As a rule, the daily weight gain should be between 800 grams and one kilogram. Here are the Schwyz calves in the photo.
- The weight of adult cows of the Schwyz breed fluctuates around 550 kg. There are also record holders weighing almost 800 kg.
- The weight of brood bulls is about 950 kg. With excellent feeding and care, they can reach 1100 kg.
The Swiss breed of cows, even of the dairy and meat direction, is distinguished by excellent milk yield. The productivity of one animal is up to 3.5 tons of milk with a fat content of 3.6 to 3.8%. In breeding farms, this figure reaches four percent. Protein in milk is up to 3.6%, so a large yield of cottage cheese is obtained.
Important! Many cattle owners note that the cheese is excellent.
As for meat, the yield is about 60 percent. The Swiss meat is of high quality.
Swiss cows on the farm:
The Swiss breed of cows, unfortunately, is not available throughout Russia, but only in 9 regions. Given the productivity of cattle, I would like these animals to settle on farms and subsidiary plots of Russians and take a dominant position there. After all, sanctions from the West and America require the development of agriculture and the receipt of a large amount of high-quality and environmentally friendly products.
Many of our readers are interested in what are the pros and cons of cows. Let's designate them.
- cows and gobies are hardy, large, practically do not get sick if proper care, feeding and maintenance are provided;
- rapid growth and weight gain;
- cows calve every year, sometimes twins;
- large yield of milk and meat;
- animals are calm, balanced, aggressiveness is not observed;
- feel great in any climatic conditions.
And now about the minuses, because it would be unfair to keep silent about them in relation to our readers. Although it should be noted that there are few downsides:
- feed should be high in calories and in large quantities;
- low milk productivity;
- Due to the non-standard nature of the udder, machine milking is inappropriate, although cows are milked by hand in private farms and small farms.
Livestock breeders reviews
Anastasia, 54 years old, Yaroslavl region
I have had the cow Schwyz for many years. I'm not overjoyed at her. The milk is sweet and tasty. My Dawn calves every year, brings strong and healthy calves that grow by leaps and bounds. Of course, you have to take care of the feed. In addition to hay, in winter we give compound feed and juicy feed: beets, potatoes. I advise everyone to keep cows of this breed.
Nikolay, 43 years old, Nizhny Novgorod
My cow is dairy. The sea gives milk, but the meat on the bones does not grow well. I thought the reason was feeding. But my fellow farmers reassured me, saying that Swiss cows aimed at milk production will never be fatty.
Olga, 41 years old, Smolensk region
We live near the Smolensk breeding farm, where the Swiss cows are bred. It was there that the heifer was bought. Inseminated in the same place. A calf was born - an exact copy of the mother. Growing fast, healthy. I add up to 25 liters per day. But if you do not have the opportunity to get feed in the right amount, then it is better to purchase simple local cows. After all, the Swiss need a varied and plentiful diet.