Gorgeous, regal, luxurious, delightful ... No words are enough to describe the beauty and splendor of this flower! It is when almost all plants enter the final stage of the vegetative period that the incomparable garden chrysanthemum is just gaining color and is ready to show flower growers all its beauty and grace.
In almost every household plot, you can find at least 2-3 bushes of this beautiful flower. And the reason for such a huge popularity of this plant lies in the fact that after planting a garden perennial chrysanthemum, minimal care is required, but the splendor and brightness of flowers gives real pleasure.
General description of the plant
Chrysanthemum is a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, or Asteraceae. According to the structure of inflorescences, some varieties of chrysanthemums belong to the genus Tansy or Yarrow.
The root system of flowers is strong, branched, located in the upper, 25-centimeter layer of soil. After planting a perennial garden chrysanthemum and proper care, the flowers (see photo) quickly take root and grow. Throughout the growing season, the root system produces excellent root growth.
The inflorescences of garden chrysanthemums are a flower basket. The minimum diameter of flowers in perennial garden chrysanthemums is only 5 cm. In large-flowered varieties, flowers can reach 18-20 cm in diameter. During lush flowering, up to 30-50 flowers can immediately bloom on one bush.
Plant height can range from 15-18 cm to one and a half meters. Such a wide spread is due to the large number of species and varieties of chrysanthemums. Some varieties of flowers are grown exclusively for decorative purposes, while others are grown for cutting.
At the moment there is no strict classification of chrysanthemums, since it is very difficult to divide into groups the variety of flowers that differ in flowering time, bushes height, size, shape and complex structure of inflorescences.
Indeed, even the petals of perennial chrysanthemums differ greatly depending on the variety. It can be simple, and reed, and spoon-shaped, and tubular. And sometimes this splendor strikes not only with bright colors and a riot of colors, but also with the inimitable form of flowers.
The popularity of perennial chrysanthemum only increases every year, which is caused by the following advantages:
- Flowers are highly resistant to sharp drops in temperature and winter frosts, typical for our country.
- Long, luxurious bloom is another advantage of garden chrysanthemums.
- Decorative qualities. You can grow chrysanthemums in any corner of the garden, in a flower bed, it is beneficial to emphasize the beauty of the site using a landscape composition, decorate a balcony, attic or veranda with low, brightly blooming bushes.
- Easy to care for flowers.
- Unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil.
- They multiply easily and quickly.
Bright, beautiful and unique colors are not afraid of either piercing, cold winds or rains. In the fall, when most of the flowers have already faded and are preparing for winter, chrysanthemums are just gaining color and are preparing to show themselves in all their glory.
Disputes about where the garden chrysanthemum was brought from are still ongoing. Some sources claim that the flower was imported from China. According to other sources, Japan is the birthplace of chrysanthemum. In some encyclopedias it is written that they began to grow it in Korea. Therefore, the garden chrysanthemum is often called Korean.
According to the size of inflorescences, chrysanthemums are divided into small-flowered (flowers up to 10 cm in diameter) and large-flowered (more than 10 cm in diameter). In turn, small-flowered are subdivided into:
According to the height of the bush, garden chrysanthemums can be divided into:
- undersized (or curb), the height of the plants is not more than 30 cm. They can be planted along the paths, in small flowerpots or containers.
- medium-sized - the height of the bushes ranges from 30 to 50 cm
- tall - chrysanthemums reach a height of 1-1.2 m.
The first group of garden perennial chrysanthemums is characterized not only by a relatively low size of the bush, but also by an early flowering period. For the most part, bush chrysanthemums or multiflora belong to undersized varieties.
A short description of the flowers in this group: short, dense bushes, covered with many small flowers of various shades. They grow very quickly and require compliance with certain rules of care. There are a lot of synonyms for this type of garden chrysanthemum. Spherical, bush, border.
All varieties of garden chrysanthemums can be conventionally classified as medium-sized, the height of the bushes of which on average varies from 30 to 50 cm.The color palette is represented by a variety of colors and shades with double, semi-double and simple inflorescences. The bushes grow well and give good root growth within one season. Bloom mainly from the second half of August to mid-October.
Medium-sized varieties of perennial chrysanthemums are most often planted in group plantings, in flower beds and in flower beds, in clumps. If border flowers are rarely grown for cutting, then this type of chrysanthemum is often used for making bouquets.
Tall varieties of garden chrysanthemums are distinguished not only by their growth, reaching 1-1.2 m, but also by stronger, thickened stems capable of holding rather large flowers, as well as later flowering.
Flowers belonging to this group are grown mainly for cutting. Inflorescences of a wide variety of colors can be pompom, double, semi-double, spherical, hemispherical. Tall varieties are grown mainly in greenhouses or in southern regions.
Mysterious and unique
The variety of species and varieties of perennial garden chrysanthemums amazes the imagination of the most inveterate and sophisticated gardeners. Large-flowered and small-flowered, high and low, bush and single - the choice is very difficult to make.
It is also difficult to describe in a few words the color range of the inflorescences and the structure of the inflorescences. Look at the photo below, how diverse the varieties of garden, perennial chrysanthemums are.
What are the ways of reproduction
You can propagate garden chrysanthemums using cuttings or dividing a bush. Both methods are fairly easy to use. Moreover, in both cases, all varietal characteristics will be fully preserved.
Chrysanthemum seeds are rarely propagated. And there are a number of good reasons for this:
- First, given the timing of flowering, flower seeds simply do not have time to ripen.
- Secondly, during seed propagation of perennial chrysanthemums, varietal characteristics may be partially lost. This is especially true for hybrid varieties of garden chrysanthemums.
- Thirdly, breeders most often use this breeding method when creating new, unique varieties.
- And lastly, choosing this method of reproduction, it should be borne in mind that growing perennial chrysanthemums from seeds is a painstaking process that requires a lot of time and effort in order to grow a full-fledged plant with a powerful root system.
The rules of planting and care when growing perennial chrysanthemums from seeds are not much different from the agricultural technology for growing other flowers. But there are still some differences, and it is advisable to know about them in advance:
- To grow seedlings, you need to prepare containers filled with drainage and loose, fertile soil.
- It is advisable to sow perennial chrysanthemums in early spring, when mass sowing of seeds begins. The optimal dates are in early to mid-March.
- Spread the chrysanthemum seeds gently over the surface and moisten the soil with a spray bottle. Sprinkle flower seeds with a thin layer of earth 3-4 mm. Seeds need plenty of sunlight and warmth to germinate quickly.
- Seedlings should appear in about 7-10 days.
- The picking of flowers, as usual, is carried out at the stage of formation of 2-3 leaves.
- Do not forget to harden the chrysanthemum seedlings before transplanting.
Planting seeds of perennial chrysanthemums can be done directly in open ground. Wait until the earth warms up to a temperature of + 15˚C + 18˚C. A suitable date is early to mid-May. Some varieties of garden chrysanthemums can be sown with seeds in the fall, that is, before winter.
Sowing is carried out in previously prepared beds, the minimum distance between which is at least 20-25 cm. After sowing, moisten the soil. Seedlings usually appear in 7-10 days. In the future, provide the flowers with the necessary care.
I would like to mention that some varieties of perennial chrysanthemums, when grown from seeds, will bloom only next year.
How to root cuttings
For propagation of chrysanthemums by cuttings, you need to pick up a healthy, original bush. Cuttings can be cut from plants in your garden, or you can take several shoots from neighbors or friends to expand the range of flowers on the site.
It is necessary to cut the material suitable for grafting in the spring, as soon as the air warms up to a temperature of + 20˚С + 26˚С. Look closely at the bushes and select healthy, powerful shoots at least 15-20 cm high.
The tops and lower leaves of the cuttings are cut off. The prepared material is placed in pre-prepared containers with loose, fertile soil for rooting.
The soil in crates and containers must always be kept moist. It is not worth overmoistening the soil, so as not to provoke the process of rotting cuttings. Containers with cuttings should be kept in a relatively warm, well-ventilated area.
Cuttings of perennial garden chrysanthemums take root rather quickly, within 2-3 weeks. As soon as the first signs appear that the shoots have taken root and started to grow, you can transplant the flowers into open ground.
How to split a bush
Chrysanthemum bushes can grow in one place for a relatively long time without transplanting. But to update the root system and ensure lush flowering, they need to be planted at least once every 3-4 years.
They usually start dividing the bush in the spring. In this case, the flowers tolerate the transplanting process without complications, take root and take root relatively quickly. Within a couple of weeks, you will notice the appearance of new, basal shoots.
The bushes are carefully dug out with a pitchfork, which will injure the root system as little as possible. Shake off excess soil. Using a clean, sharp knife, divide the garden chrysanthemum bush into several small ones. The main thing is that on each plot there are at least 4-5 full-fledged shoots and a part of a healthy root system.
Blocks of flowers are disinfected in a light solution of potassium permanganate for 2-3 hours and planted in beds prepared in advance in compliance with the rules and regulations of planting.
Perennial chrysanthemums planted in this way bloom in late August - early September.
If someone tells you that planting and caring for perennial chrysanthemums is an easy job that any grower can handle, do not believe it. Chrysanthemum is not a flower for the lazy or busy. And if planting as a whole does not cause difficulties, then caring for a chrysanthemum is a troublesome business.
In order for a flower bush to bloom magnificently and brightly, without losing varietal characteristics, you will need to make a lot of effort.
How to choose the right variety
Correctly selected varieties will be the key to a lush and lush flowering. In this case, inimitable and chic perennial chrysanthemums will bloom on your site, as in the photo when buying seedlings or seeds.
However, it should be borne in mind that large-flowered varieties of flowers are very demanding in care and are capricious. Most often they are grown in greenhouses or in regions with warm, mild climates. Small-flowered varieties of perennial garden chrysanthemums are excellent for mid-latitude and areas with harsh climatic conditions. They are more hardy and relatively calmly tolerate sudden temperature changes and severe winter frosts.
When choosing flowers, be sure to consider the individual characteristics of each variety and recommendations for planting and caring for garden chrysanthemums.
What place to determine for the future flower bed
To ensure a luxurious bloom for the cultivation of perennial chrysanthemums, it is important to select a sufficiently lit area. The main thing is that the flowers bathe in the sun for at least five to six hours a day.
The lack of sunlight affects not only the abundance of flowering. The appearance of the plant in poor lighting becomes unpresentable. The shoots are elongated, the leafiness of the stems decreases, the flowering time is shifted by several weeks, and the flowers become pale and small.
Therefore, a well-lit and elevated area is the best place to plant perennial garden chrysanthemums.
What soil is suitable for growing
Considering that shaded areas are completely unsuitable for growing perennial chrysanthemums, they also react very painfully to excessive soil moisture. For good growth, you need to provide the roots with a loose, well-ventilated soil.
Too moist soil, poorly permeable to moisture, is the first reason for the death of even frost-resistant perennial chrysanthemums. Therefore, for planting flowers, you need to choose areas with fertile, loose, air-permeable soil, having acidity values in the range of 5.5-6.5 Ph.
While preparing the soil for planting perennial chrysanthemums, add a bucket of compost or rotted manure to the soil while digging. Flowers do not need much organic fertilizers. On excessively fertile soils, plants "fatten", that is, there is an active growth of green mass to the detriment of abundant flowering.
Recommended landing dates
You can plant perennial garden chrysanthemums in open ground in both spring and autumn.
In spring, flowers are planted in the second half of May or early summer. In the southern regions, you can plant chrysanthemums a little earlier, in late-early April. The plants will have enough time until autumn to take root.
In the fall, it is advisable to have time to plant chrysanthemums before the beginning of October, so that the flowers have time to take root and fully prepare for winter. However, do not forget that the fall planting for garden chrysanthemums is undesirable. Therefore, if you purchased several bushes in the fall, plant them in a small box or flowerpot and store them in a dry, cool basement until spring.
Getting started landing
Chrysanthemums are quite unpretentious flowers, they easily tolerate a transplant and quickly take root. Therefore, the planting process will not cause you any special complications. Try to stick to the following guidelines:
- The distance between plants depends on the variety. For large-flowered, tall varieties, these parameters are at least 30 cm.But for bush and small-flowered flowers, the distance can be increased to 40-50 cm.
- The depth of the planting holes is no more than 25-30 cm.
- Do not forget to put 1-2 handfuls of sand in each hole.
- It is advisable to transfer flowers to the planting pit during transplantation along with a lump of earth in order to injure the root system as little as possible.
- It is not worth deeply deepening the root system of plants. It is enough that the roots are covered with soil and do not look out of the ground.
- Place a support next to tall flowers immediately after planting.
If, after planting, there is a threat of short-term, spring frosts, cover the plantings with lutrasil or other non-woven material to protect young, immature sprouts from freezing.
Care secrets for the season
Every florist knows that only if the rules of care are followed after planting, perennial chrysanthemums will delight with their luxurious and delightful flowers for several years.
Watering, timely feeding, loosening, forming a bush and preparing for winter are a number of activities that you need to carry out throughout the season.
When growing garden chrysanthemums, much attention should be paid to watering. The abundance of flowering and the appearance of the plant entirely depends on the moisture content of the soil. Water flowers in a timely manner. Increase the volume of water during dry periods. It is not worth overmoistening the soil in the flower garden, so as not to provoke the onset of diseases and death of garden chrysanthemums.
How, when and what
The next stage of care after planting perennial chrysanthemums in the open field is timely and competent feeding. In the spring and early summer, you need to fertilize the flowers with nitrogen-based dressings. The first procedure is carried out a week after planting, after 2-3 weeks - the second. Subsequently, you can fertilize the flowers with a liquid solution based on bird droppings or mullein.
Chrysanthemums respond well to mineral, complex fertilizers. As soon as the first signs appear, indicating the beginning of flowering, nitrogen fertilizers must be excluded.
In the budding phase, garden chrysanthemums are fed with fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium.
How to form a bush correctly
The formation of a bush is a mandatory procedure when growing bush and undersized varieties of garden chrysanthemums. In order for the bushes to be lush and look neat and well-groomed by autumn, each shoot must be pinched in a timely manner.
As soon as the main shoots reach a height of 10-12 cm, the tip is pinched. Lateral shoots gradually grow, on which you also need to pinch the tops at the same height. Thus, by autumn the bush will look like an even, tidy, peculiar ball. Soon, colorful flower balls will delight the eye, and beautify your site for months.
Pinching of the tops is carried out until the end of June. However, remember that one month before the beginning of flowering, the pinching of the shoots must be stopped.
Some growers note that in many varieties of garden chrysanthemums, the first buds appear 1-2 weeks after planting. It is advisable to cut them off in order to direct the forces and nutrients to the growth of the plant.
Before growing perennial chrysanthemums, you should know that faded flowers need to be removed from small-flowered plants in a timely manner. This simple exercise will help extend the flowering period to 2-3 months.
Loosening and mulching
Immediately after planting, in order to provide the roots with oxygen, you need to regularly loosen the soil. At this time, chrysanthemums are actively growing the root system.
However, after 1-1.5 months after planting, loosening must be abandoned. During this period, you can easily damage the roots of garden chrysanthemums.
Important! It is highly undesirable to replant garden chrysanthemums during the flowering period! This can lead to the death of the plant.
Chrysanthemums respond well to such a stage of care as mulching. This procedure helps keep the soil moist. In a mulched flower garden, weeds grow more slowly and in less volume.
The following materials can be used as mulch:
- pine needles;
- shredded pine bark;
- chopped straw.
With proper care, garden chrysanthemums grow very quickly. Literally in a month, you will notice that a small bush has almost doubled, and by autumn it will turn into a luxurious, flowering bush.
Autumn work in the flower garden
When preparing perennial garden chrysanthemums for winter, you need to carry out a number of activities in the flower garden. At the end of flowering, all stems of flowers must be cut to a height of 7-10 cm. Remove foliage and debris from the flower garden, and take care of a good shelter.
It is impossible to predict how severe and frosty the winter will be. Therefore, it is imperative to cover garden chrysanthemums.
Advice! Frost-resistant varieties of flowers can be left without shelter for the winter only in the southern regions.
Before covering, huddle the plants, renew the mulching layer and cover them with spruce branches or fallen leaves. If in your area the temperature often drops below -30˚C -35˚C, take care of additional shelter - cover the flower beds with lutrasil or any breathable material. It is important that the shelter has good air flow.
Tall and large-flowered garden chrysanthemums will require more care from you before winter comes. They are quite capricious in this regard and are afraid of low temperatures. Therefore, it is advisable to dig them up, transplant them into a suitable container, and send them for wintering in a dry room, the air temperature in which should be strictly within 0˚С + 5˚С.
Check how the flowers are feeling at least 1-2 times a month, and water the soil in containers with a little water. Do not allow the soil to dry out.
Who or what can harm flowers
Subject to the rules of care after planting, perennial chrysanthemums rarely get sick. And pests can rarely threaten flowers. However, inspect the foliage and stems of the plant from time to time to make sure no one is encroaching on your flowers.
When growing garden chrysanthemums, you may encounter the following problems:
- If small cobwebs are found on the underside of the leaves, the foliage changes its emerald color to gray-brown, it means that a spider mite has settled in your flowers. It sucks moisture and nutrients from plants, and if urgent action is not taken, the flowers will die. If insects are found, urgently treat the plantings with chemicals.
- Deformation and darkened foliage signals leaf nematode disease. Cut off any damaged parts of the flowers and remove from the site or burn. Carefully dig out the flowers, treat the roots with potassium permanganate solution and transplant to another place. It is impossible to plant garden chrysanthemums in the same place for 4-5 years.
- The leaves turn yellow from below and subsequently fall off. This suggests that the flowers are infected with verticellosis, an infectious disease that primarily affects the root system of plants. At the initial stage, you can still save the flowers by spraying them with special preparations. In advanced cases, the plant dies.
- A light, white-gray bloom on the leaves and buds notifies that powdery mildew has appeared in your flower garden. To prevent the spread of the disease, remove the infected parts of the flowers and treat the plants with Bordeaux liquid.
In general, garden chrysanthemums are highly resistant to many diseases, and relatively rarely they are chosen as a shelter or food for insect pests.
The author of the video will tell you about the peculiarities of planting and caring for perennial chrysanthemums
With the arrival of autumn, these graceful and unique flowers can be found on the site of every avid florist. Bright and lush, capricious and unpretentious, chic and luxurious - it is impossible to describe in a nutshell the irresistible beauty and exceptional attractiveness of garden perennial chrysanthemums.